A high-salt eating regimen shouldn’t be solely unhealthy for one’s blood stress, but in addition for the immune system. That is the conclusion of a present examine below the management of the College Hospital Bonn. Mice fed a high-salt eating regimen have been discovered to endure from far more extreme bacterial infections. Human volunteers who consumed a further six grams of salt per day additionally confirmed pronounced immune deficiencies. This quantity corresponds to the salt content material of two quick meals meals. The outcomes are revealed within the journal Science Translational Medication.
5 grams a day, no extra: That is the utmost quantity of salt that adults ought to eat in line with the suggestions of the World Well being Group (WHO). It corresponds roughly to 1 degree teaspoon. In actuality, nevertheless, many Germans exceed this restrict significantly: Figures from the Robert Koch Institute counsel that on common males eat ten, girls greater than eight grams a day.
Which means that we attain for the salt shaker far more than is sweet for us. In any case, sodium chloride, which is its chemical title, raises blood stress and thereby will increase the danger of coronary heart assault or stroke. However not solely that: “We have now now been capable of show for the primary time that extreme salt consumption additionally considerably weakens an vital arm of the immune system,” explains Prof. Dr. Christian Kurts from the Institute of Experimental Immunology on the College of Bonn.
This discovering is surprising, as some research level in the other way. For instance, infections with sure pores and skin parasites in laboratory animals heal considerably sooner if these eat a high-salt eating regimen: The macrophages, that are immune cells that assault, eat and digest parasites, are notably lively within the presence of salt. A number of physicians concluded from this remark that sodium chloride has a typically immune-enhancing impact.
The pores and skin serves as a salt reservoir
“Our outcomes present that this generalization shouldn’t be correct,” emphasizes Katarzyna Jobin, lead writer of the examine, who has since transferred to the College of Würzburg. There are two causes for this: Firstly, the physique retains the salt focus within the blood and within the numerous organs largely fixed. In any other case vital organic processes could be impaired. The one main exception is the pores and skin: It capabilities as a salt reservoir of the physique. That is why the extra consumption of sodium chloride works so nicely for some pores and skin illnesses.
Nevertheless, different components of the physique aren’t uncovered to the extra salt consumed with meals. As an alternative, it’s filtered out by the kidneys and excreted within the urine. And that is the place the second mechanism comes into play: The kidneys have a sodium chloride sensor that prompts the salt excretion operate. As an undesirable aspect impact, nevertheless, this sensor additionally causes so-called glucocorticoids to build up within the physique. And these in flip inhibit the operate of granulocytes, the most typical sort of immune cell within the blood.
Granulocytes, like macrophages, are scavenger cells. Nevertheless, they don’t assault parasites, however primarily micro organism. If they don’t do that to a adequate diploma, infections proceed far more severely. “We have been capable of present this in mice with a listeria an infection,” explains Dr. Jobin. “We had beforehand put a few of them on a high-salt eating regimen. Within the spleen and liver of those animals we counted 100 to 1,000 occasions the variety of disease-causing pathogens.” Listeria are micro organism which are discovered as an example in contaminated meals and might trigger fever, vomiting and sepsis. Urinary tract infections additionally healed far more slowly in laboratory mice fed a high-salt eating regimen.
Sodium chloride additionally seems to have a detrimental impact on the human immune system. “We examined volunteers who consumed six grams of salt along with their every day consumption,” says Prof. Kurts. “That is roughly the quantity contained in two quick meals meals, i.e. two burgers and two parts of French fries.” After one week, the scientists took blood from their topics and examined the granulocytes. The immune cells coped a lot worse with micro organism after the take a look at topics had began to eat a high-salt eating regimen.
In human volunteers, the extreme salt consumption additionally resulted in elevated glucocorticoid ranges. That this inhibits the immune system isn’t a surprise: The perfect-known glucocorticoid cortisone is historically used to suppress irritation. “Solely by means of investigations in a whole organism have been we capable of uncover the advanced management circuits that lead from salt consumption to this immunodeficiency,” stresses Kurts. “Our work due to this fact additionally illustrates the constraints of experiments purely with cell cultures.”